Turkish-Russian relations have seen a troubled year, from the downing of a Russian military jet by Turkish forces to the assassination of Russia’s ambassador to Ankara.    Mouse over the circles above to start interactive timeline
Stand By Me September 23, 2015 Russian President Vladimir Putin and Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan stand side-by-side in Moscow at the opening of a grand new mosque in Russia -- the largest in the country. Putin makes a speech calling on Islamic leaders to join forces in the battle against global extremism. Later, Erdogan and Putin meet for bilateral talks and both publicly praise the good relations between the countries.
Entering The Fray September 30, 2015 Four years into the civil war in Syria, Russia launches air strikes it says are targeted against military facilities operated by the Islamic State (IS) extremist group. Activists say none of the areas hit were controlled by IS, however, and Western media widely reported the targeted areas as controlled by rebels fighting Russia-backed Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. The Russian entry greatly complicates the crisis, with the U.S. and Turkey backing rebels against Assad, both Russia and the U.S. operating in the same airspace as they conduct strikes against IS, and Russia providing air support to Assad's forces.
Speed Dial November 4, 2015 Putin calls Erdogan to congratulate him on the Justice and Development Party's victory in Turkey's November 1 parliamentary elections.
Making Time November 16, 2015 Putin and Erdogan meet in Antalya on the sidelines of the G20 Summit in what would be their last known exchange for many months. 
'Stab In The Back' November 24, 2015 A Turkish F16 fighter jet shoots down a Russian Su-24 attack aircraft near the Turkey-Syria border. Turkey said the plane violated Turkish airspace despite repeated warnings, while Russia claimed the plane never left Syrian airspace. The pilot and navigator managed to eject from the plane before it crashed, but the pilot was killed by Syrian rebels on the ground. Putin responds by saying: "Today's loss was like a stab in the back by the accomplices of terrorists." Erdogan refuses to apologize, saying that "the actions were fully in line with Turkey's rules of engagement that have been declared before." Putin warns of "serious consequences" for Turkey in a war of words that some initially feared could escalate into real conflict.
Angry Street November 25, 2015 Russian protesters in Moscow throw eggs, paint, and stones at the Turkish Embassy.  Russian tourist agencies stop selling package tours to Turkey. 
No Backing Down November 26, 2015 Turkey releases audio recordings of what it says are Turkey's repeated warnings to the Russian pilot. Erdogan is unrepentant: "Faced with the same violation today, Turkey would give the same response." 
Payback Time November 27, 2015 Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov announces that Russia is suspending its visa-free regime with Turkey that was introduced in April 2011. In turn, Turkey calls on its citizens to refrain from visiting Russia.
First Regrets November 28, 2015 Putin approves sanctions on Turkey in a decree intended to enhance "national security" and the "protection" of Russian citizens. The decree outlines a ban on some foods and goods, without specifying which. In a first expression of regret over the downing of the Russian aircraft, Erdogan says Turkey is "truly saddened" by the incident, saying "we wish it hadn't happened" and expressing hope that it wouldn't again. However, Erdogan continues to defend the action, and Putin continues to hold out for a formal apology.  
Bans Decreed December 1, 2015 Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev signs a decree imposing an embargo on food imports from Turkey, including poultry, fruits, and vegetables. It prohibits charter flights from Russia to Turkey, a major Russian tourist destination, and prohibits the future hiring of Turkish nationals.
Black Oil December 2, 2015 Russia's Defense Ministry accuses Erdogan and his son of involvement in a "criminal business" smuggling Syrian and Iraqi oil allegedly stolen by the Islamic State. At a briefing in Moscow, the Russian Defense Ministry showed satellite images of tanker trucks to support their allegations. Erdogan denounces the allegations as "slander."
Stream Dream Abandoned December 5, 2015  Plans for Turkish Stream -- or Turkstream -- a proposed natural gas pipeline from Russia to Turkey, are abandoned by Erdogan. Russian officials earlier said Moscow had suspended talks on the pipeline project because of the downing of the plane. 
Power Plant Plans Halted December 9, 2015 Russia reportedly halts work on a $20 billion Turkish nuclear power plant, although other reports denied work had been stopped. The Akkuyu plant in the south is to be Turkey's first nuclear power plant, and is seen as part of Turkey's effort to reduce its dependence on imported energy.
Kurdish Representation February 10, 2016 Syrian Kurdish separatists, whom Ankara considers terrorists, open a diplomatic representation office in Moscow.
Weapons Allegations April 1, 2016 Russia's ambassador to the UN Vitaly Churkin accuses Turkey of supplying weapons and military equipment to Islamic State militants via three non-governmental Turkish groups. 
'Deep Regret' June 27, 2016 The Kremlin website says in a statement that Erdogan wrote a letter to Putin apologizing for the downing of the plane, expressing "deep regret" and denying deliberate intent to shoot down the plane. Turkey also announces it will prosecute a Turkish man fighting in northern Syria who is suspected of killing the pilot of the Russian aircraft. Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov tells reporters: "The head of the Turkish state expressed his sympathy and deep condolences to the family of the Russian pilot who was killed, and he said sorry." 
Attack That Binds Late June 28, 2016 In Turkey, three militants open fire and blow themselves up in an attack at Ataturk international airport in Istanbul late June 28, killing 45 and injuring over 230. The next day, Erdogan and Putin hold their first telephone conversation in months. Putin expresses his condolences for the victims of the attack, and promises to gradually lift sanctions and restore ties. The pair agree to meet in person in the near future.
Sanctions End June 30, 2016   "Yesterday, as you know there was a conversation with the president of the country," Putin says of Erdogan. "It is known even that Ankara has apologized for the downed Russian bomber. In view of this, we will very soon take measures to restore bilateral cooperation." Shortly thereafter, Dmitry Medvedev orders the removal of sanctions.
Coup Attempt July 15, 2016 A failed coup takes place in Turkey. Ankara quickly blames the coup on the cleric Fethullah Gulen, a one-time Erdogan ally whom Turkey accuses of running a terrorist group, and who now lives in the United States. The developments prompt a cooling in Ankara's relations with the West, which get cooler still as Western capitals express alarm at Erdogan's far-reaching post-coup crackdown.
Putin On The Horn Again July 17, 2016 In a telephone call with Erdogan, Putin condemns the "anti-constitutional actions and violence" of the coup, expresses condolences over the deaths, and reaffirms his intention to meet face to face. 
Supportive Mood July 26, 2016 Turkish Deputy Prime Minister Mehmet Simsek meets with Russian Deputy Prime Minister Arkady Dvorkovich in Moscow. Simsek thanks the Kremlin, saying: "You supported democracy, supported the government." Reuters reports that Turkish officials say a political deal has been cut for Russia to continue work on TurkStream and on the reportedly halted nuclear power plant.
'Dear Friend'  August 9, 2016 Erdogan flies to Russia in his first trip abroad since the failed coup, to meet erstwhile foe Putin in St. Petersburg. Erdogan calls Putin his "dear friend" and the two pledge to restore ties.
By Carlos Coelho. Text: Thomas Balmforth and Kathleen Moore Sources:  RFE/RL, Kremlin, Aljazeera, Reuters, BBC, Moscow Times 
Turkish-Russian relations have seen a troubled year, from the downing of a Russian military jet by Turkish forces to the assassination of Russia’s ambassador to Ankara.   
By Carlos Coelho Text: Thomas Balmforth Sources:  RFE/RL, Kremlin, Aljazeera, Reuters, BBC, Moscow Times 
'Dear Friend'  August 9, 2016 Erdogan flies to Russia in his first trip abroad since the failed coup, to meet erstwhile foe Putin in St. Petersburg. Erdogan calls Putin his “dear friend” and the two pledge to restore ties.
Gas Pipeline Deal   October 10, 2016 Turkstream, abandoned the previous December amid bilateral tensions, is back on. Russia and Turkey sign an agreement to build the gas pipeline that would bring Russian natural gas to Europe on a southern route bypassing Ukraine.
Ambassador’s Assassination   December 19, 2016 An off-duty Turkish police officer fatally shoots Russia's ambassador to Turkey as he gives a speech at an art gallery in Ankara. Putin calls the killing a "provocation” aimed at damaging Russia-Turkey ties, and a meeting of the Russian, Turkish, and Iranian foreign ministers goes ahead as planned the following day.
Defense Designs  October 14, 2016 Moscow says it might supply Ankara with air defense systems and that the topic came up when Putin and Erdogan met in Istanbul on October 10.